With the increase in several diseases and specific chromosomes problems in humans. Genetic engineering is a great revolution to get out of these diseases. It is one of the hot topics with full of contradictions in medical science. Genetic Engg. takes place on every living being, whether it is a plant or some animal. Through genetic engineering, various types of modifications are done to increase reproduction and for healthy outcomes. Genetic engineering is helping to understand the emerging field of recombinant DNA technology.
Meaning of Genetic engineering
The sort of manipulation or alteration of DNA in the organism through science. It is a discipline that combines various technological tools which also included DNA recombinant technology or the manipulation of plants vitro tissues. Genetic Engg. is also known as Bio-informatics as it provides information about biology, about the DNA, etc. It has been seen that typically people were altering the genomes of plants and animals from many years using as traditional breeding techniques. Today genetic engineering is usually performed in every field like agriculture, animal husbandry or to fight with some genetic diseases.
History of genetic engineering
The term genetic engineering is introduced in the 1970s. Herbert Boyer and Stanley Cohen in 1973 had first experimented on genetic engineering. One of the most famous of gene engineering is Golden Rice. The first company who focus on this is Genentech. Paul Berg was the first who conduct recombinant DNA molecule experiment on monkey virus with lambda virus.
Advantages of genetic engineering
There are many benefits of genetic engineering. It is used in various fields like agriculture, medical treatment, animal husbandry to improve the yields of economic growth. Some of the advantages are given below.
- Follows scientific principles that have been following from the generations– Helps to increase the speed at which the progress of the organism occurs. Selective cross bleeding based on specific trades that work with similar businesses with other species is how we have achieved the results.
- Increase yields– Many farmers used various types of pesticides and herbicides to maximise the yield, but the herbicides and pesticides work very slow. Through genetic engineering, farmers make more profits to high results with better speed.
- Helps to create better quality food products- Through genetic engineering, we can produce healthier and nutritious food for people. Genetic engineering also extends the lifespan of the food, which help the food to survive in the harsh condition during transportation.
- Allows to develop specific trades in plants and animals- Helps to create particular transaction makese food more attractive. A more comprehensive range of foods and vegetables are creating by combining different items. In animal husbandry through genetic engineering cows can produce more milk and sheep can be manipulated to provide a better quality of wool.
- Disease resistance- Used to fight with various diseases, for example, fungal diseases, Panama disease, or other infections that affect the multiple crops. By genetic engineering disease, resistant species are created so that it cannot be added in the human food chain.
- Used in medical treatment- Many treatments like vaccines, insulins, and even hormones treatment takes place through genetic engineering. It also helps to fight with life, threatening genes that are present in our DNA.
- Helps to treat with tailor-made characteristics of an organism- Many desirable features of an organism can be manipulated for the benefit of the environment. For example, trees can be used to absorb CO2 to reduce the threat of global warming. Disease carrying insects may be engineered into becoming sterile insects.
- Increase genetic diversity- We can support the diverse genetic formation and produce more variant alleles.
- Helps to upgrade the various human traits: Through genetic engineering, humans can raise their different hereditary characteristics such as intelligence, beauty, strength, colour, sex, etc.
Disadvantages of genetic engineering
- Creates difficulty in legal liabilities with unintended consequences- The companies patent many genetic engineering processes so everyone cannot perform it. Mostly the genetically engineered DNA sequences are patented by the USA.
- Have so many negative consequences- Sometimes due to genetic engineering experiment organism dies. It also has been seen that due to genetic manipulation, organisms become more frustrated and dangerous for the other species. This also works against species diversity and creates a problem in the future.
- Unethical interference with nature- some people believe that genetics is evil as it manipulates natural resources created by god. That is genetic engineering always remains in controversy due to which many projects did also not get permission.
- Unintended effect on other species- According to the studies, the genetically-manipulated organism put a negative impact on the domestic animal. The species tries to dominate the domestic animals and also tries to remove their traits over time.
- Unintended economic consequences- It has been argued that genetically manipulated crops will hurt the economy and environment because monoculture practices are taking place by large farms production centers that dominate the small farmers who cannot afford such type of technology.
Applications of genetic engineering
It has been advanced in understanding various practical and theoretical aspects of DNA in an organism. Through this engineering bacteria’s can be created for the synthesis of human insulin, alpha-interferon, for growth of human hormones, for hepatitis B vaccine, etc. It also helps to achieve the fear of unfavorable and dangerous trade in microorganisms through resistance to antibiotics, production of toxins, or changing the tendency of causing disease.
Genetic engg. is one of the most significant breaks through in the medical history along with side the discovery of atoms and space flight. However, there is a lot of risks involved in the experiments. Thus the government has produced various types of rules and regulations to control such sort of experiments so that there is no harm to humanity. Despite these strict laws, genetic engineering has been performed illegally, and many experimental breakthroughs have been seen over the years. Still, of all these things, genetic engg. is the most significant benefit in the field of helping cure illness and disease in unborn children.